Wednesday, October 30, 2019
ABC Application - Essay Example The inspiration of this idea was developed when I came across Speak and Translate software of Apple. With the passage of time, as I grew up the issues prevailing in different genders was one of the most controversial things. In my past relationship, understanding a woman remained was the most crucial aspect. I always desired to encode focusing on the tone and way they speak to understand what they actually mean. The idea of ABC Software developed when I was able to see several fun applications for assistance in different things. The use of the sensor to dedicate heartbeat, eye movement, hand movement, etc is possible with a Smartphone. The inducement of the science and technology has always been possible with Smartphone. The conflict between the psychology between the two genders (Male and Female) has remained to be one of the major issues in relationships. Personal inspiration to put science and technology together to create innovate way to overcome psychological gaps between male a nd female is possible through this application. The idea is inspired by several personal life events and observations have provided me a vision to develop this application. The tone detection to translate and decode the meaning is one of the major strength of the application. The unique feature of this application makes this application unique and desirable for individuals. The application can effective way to decode the actual meaning of a girlfriend and can significantly contribute to resolving the conflicts.
Monday, October 28, 2019
Social structures in different cultures Essay The best way to study social classes and the diversity of such in a culture would be to begin by defining what social class is. In order to make a more accurate study, it was part of my method to interview someone with actual exposure to this type of social strata. I believe that on interviewing him, a real true-to-life and accurate first-hand observation may be given. As, he was an Armenian, I place this culture as my basis and standard. Now, to begin would be to define what social class is. His best definition would be a separation of people based on the amount of money a family holds. This would then dictate their classification and status in society. The amount of money they would have as a clan would serve as a basis for their status and how they are placed by the general public. Basically, the greater amount of wealth possessed by a family garnered from their business and labor, the higher their status in society and in the social strata. The only exception to this would be those involved in the mafia or similar shady dealing, whereas the source of money is questionably from jobs of ill-repute. These would then have the family classified as being part of corrupt politics, and may give the family a bad name despite the amount of wealth. In the culture under study, I saw the classification was basically between the poor and rich. There was a wide separation between these two, as middle class was small in quantity. It is a widespread phenomenon and a social stratum that is of general knowledge throughout the country. Families that are part of the rich may be those that own homes and have adequate sources of water and facility. They would be the ones who would wear more clothes, be seen to carry themselves with more Ã¢â¬Å"classÃ¢â¬ , and in fact those who would be the ones who hire people from the lower classes as their servants or employees. Those who are not, namely the poor, would be those in the more congested areas and towns, where luxuries such as heated water are not within access. They would be the general masses and rabble who live day to day just trying to make a living and get by. Because of the wide separation between rich and poor, there is few middle class. The distinction between the strata is evident. Either one is among the select who are born into comfort and of that more comfortable environment, or one is born into the rough real world where the grind of everyday life involves effort, blood, sweat and tears. The difficulty with the social class system is that it is an evident source of injustice and inequality amongst the people. For example, when you get in trouble with the police, rich people always get off after they pay the police through bribery/ On the other hand, poor people go to jail.Ã The fact that the rich have more wealth, most especially due to their separation from the poor by a wide margin, gives them the power to roam freely with more privilege and leniency to bend rules set by the government. They have the power to live above the law and move things to their advantage because of the money that they possess. It is also within their reach to be treated with a double standard, where the poor may be treated as usually guilty and less trusted, while the rich get off the hook.Ã The rich are the ones more likely to be driving cars however they will not be fined for overspeeding and the like. The poor however may not be committing the crime but will be under greater suspect, because of the fact that they are poor. There are also other disadvantages to this system. The poor stay poor and get poorer. The rich stay amongst themselves and stay rich. There is a vast separation and no room for getting better. The lack of education stays the same and there is no room for growth. As the wealth stays within the rich, it is very hard for the poor to elevate themselves to a higher standard, and by virtue of their birth into the poor, they stay poor. It is only the rich who have benefits and stay within them. This was again reiterated during my interview. The interviewee being of the richer strata stated that because he was from a wealthier community, he and all those with him knew that they would remain wealthy. Also, by living in a wealthy area, they had a clean and beautiful location, which was patrolled by police for top security, among a multitude of other benefits. The division spreads all over the place as another example of its effect is its extent to the workplace. The rich people have better jobs in business regardless of their level of education because itÃ¢â¬â¢s who they know not what they know and the poor work in factories or do not work at all. In terms of schooling, everyone is allowed equal opportunity to schooling. However, again because of the amount of resources, only the rich kids can continue to learn in college so poor kids are stuck with high school level educations. The rich are college educated and the poor are high school educated, that is, if they stay in school in the first place. Because however they are on the streets, the poor have better skills rather than knowledge.Ã Now recently, a change is staring to happen with more scholarships given out to poorer children. However, this can only do so much. As there is a widespread division between the rich and poor, the amount of uneducated folk is widespread and the access that the poor have to a chance of uplifting their standard is small. The educational system although provided for all still is one that is founded on financial capability, hence still catering mostly to keep the higher standard of the rich, and keeping inaccessible to the poor. In terms of politics, it is the same. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s not what you know itÃ¢â¬â¢s who you know in Armenian politics. Even though a democratic voting system is in place, there still is too much corruption where the lower classes voice is not heard. The rich have money and money defines the power that they have, Due to the fact that they have money, they can steer the economy in a way that their opinions are more listened to and theirs are followed more. Plus, due to the fact that it is they who are more educated, they are able to use this to their advantage. The point here is not only that they have more control. It is also the fact that due to their control, they can put hindrance to the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s growth, as instead of allocating wealth and decision to the growth of the poor, the enlargement of the middle class, the lessening of the poor, their effort are maintained on keeping the rich with the rich. The economy is on a standstill and there is no progress. The only exception to all these divisions would be that of religion. As believed, all men are equal in GodÃ¢â¬â¢s eyes, and here there are no biases. Under the eyes of their God, all men, rich or poor, are alike and are his children.
Saturday, October 26, 2019
Explore how two of the poems you have studied deal with the theme of looking back on a relationship The two poems I have chosen to explain are Piano by D H Lawrence and In Mrs Tilchers Class by Carol Ann Duffy; I have chosen these two poems because they both tell us about the same sort of memory, i.e. of a good time in their childhood. Moving on to the mood of the poems. Both poems are very emotional and although they are both happy memories the emotions vary, for example in 'Piano' the poem is very sad and nostalgic 'till the heart of me weeps' as the poet wishes that he could return to those presumably happier times, on the other hand 'In Mrs Tilchers class' is very childish and as in a dreamy world 'the laugh of a bell swung by a running child' The mood shows the intention of the poems. In 'In Mrs Tilchers Class' this was to recreate the safety warmth and happiness of childhood innocence and how it all changed at the end of primary school 'the inky tadpoles changed from commas into exclamation marks' I believe this symbolizes the change from a child into an adolescent. However in 'Piano' the poem is showing us how the past will always shape us he tells us how we can never go back to the past 'I weep like a child for the past' The structure and the form support the intention of the poems. In 'In Mrs Tilchers Class' the structure is very simple and easy to understand, there is no rhyming scheme, four octets and eight syllables to a line this helps to recreate the idyllic primary classroom by being very simple like the sort of things that a young child would be learning about. However 'Piano' has a very complex structure, in comparison, and although again the syllable count is random the rest is not so, there are three regular quatrains each with rhyming couplets. In particular the poets style shows us how they feel. In 'piano' the poet's style is one that is very emotional to do this, the poet hast used lots of emotive language 'weep' and 'flood of remembrance' also D
Thursday, October 24, 2019
We live in an age of communication. Communication is the problem and the opportunity addressed by a great deal of technology design and development. But because communication is an interpersonal and a social phenomenon, technology issues must be approached with a particular appreciation of human and social factors. The organization of societies today requires effective global communication between diverse and far-flung social and cultural systems. Only through technical mediation are we able to maintain the flows of commerce and information required by the world-wide interdependence. Technologies of communication become the means of production, or production format, of communication. Their use in communication is not transparent. In fact, technologies introduce new contingencies and context into communication. Analysis of communication and interaction in society today needs to account for the transformative effects of mediation. Technologies are rational by design, and in use, they rationalize human activity. Human communication and interaction, however, are neither rational nor designed. The difference between the technical and the human shows up in technology at what we call the "interface." In our case, we will consider this not just a user interface, but a social interface. It is social because it translates communication (messages, content) while also facilitating the subtle and tacit exchange of interpersonal acknowledgments. The latter, though they don't "say" anything, reproduce our relations. Social interface issues generally involve ambiguities of communication, intent, outcome and so on. These ambiguities result from technology's mediation of practices in which individuals are normally able to address and resolve ambiguities as they come up. It's at the social interface where the distinction between communication's content and participants' relationships becomes an issue, because the technology that's good for transmitting content may not be good for reproducing relationships. The implicit purpose of communication is to motivate a listener (or recipient) to do, or understand, something communicated. Thus the use of technology extends and limits the very power of communication. It extends our ability to access and connect, but limits our ability to communicate and bind. Repercussions can be seen at all levels of society, from individual and interpersonal to macro-social. Our study of communication technologies will borrow from pragmatics, which is branch of linguistics that emphasizes the "how" of what we say (in addition to the "what"). A pragmatics of mediated interaction would thus emphasize the production and performance of mediated communication and interaction, focusing on the practices developed around connectivity technologies.
Wednesday, October 23, 2019
Over the last few decades advertising has altered the lives of many and in particular children. Children are susceptible to what they see and are more prone to act on a whim. This research paper will analyse advertising which is aimed at children and will test the following thesis statement Ã¢â¬â Thesis Ã¢â¬â Advertising misleads children in purchasing goods which they do not need. When you think about this, it may not seem that true. You could argue that you donÃ¢â¬â¢t know anyone whose fashion or style is influenced by HollywoodÃ¢â¬â¢s stars. But, you know youÃ¢â¬â¢ve seen people wearing Sean John or JLo brand clothing. Celebrities also influence fashion much more generally. Ã¢â¬Å"Most fashion trends were either started or influenced by the big stars,Ã¢â¬ says Ramon. Another key component of child intended marketing is the music industry. Stephen Kiehl of the Baltimore Sun says, Ã¢â¬Å"You could be forgiven for confusing the Number 1 song in the U. S. last week with a commercial. Ã¢â¬ The journalist also mentions that some musical artists are even paid to advertise specific products in their songs. A recent example of this is Petey PabloÃ¢â¬â¢s song Ã¢â¬Å"Freak-a-LeakÃ¢â¬ in which the lyrics include, Ã¢â¬Å"Now I got to give a shout out to SeagramÃ¢â¬â¢s gin. Cause IÃ¢â¬â¢m drinkinÃ¢â¬â¢ it and they payinÃ¢â¬â¢ me for it. Ã¢â¬ According to the San Francisco marketing company, Agenda Inc. , Ã¢â¬Å"59 brands have been mentioned 645 times in the songs that have made it into the top 20 this year. Ã¢â¬ Another large reservoir of advertising aimed at children is oddly enough, school. Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ËLooking rightÃ¢â¬â¢ which really means Ã¢â¬Ëfitting inÃ¢â¬â¢, is very important for young teenagers,Ã¢â¬ says LaRue- Robinson, a middle school guidance counselor in Forestville, Md. With students caring about how their peers are dressed, moms are beginning to worry; Ã¢â¬Å"ItÃ¢â¬â¢s gotten really bad now withÃ¢â¬ ¦ Tiny Teddies and Cheezels give a balance diet to children (Houlihan, 2005). On the other hand, some advertisements using prize to deceive children to buy their products. The video (Buy me that, too! 1992) explained how the television advertising deceptive children. From the Cereal Giveaways advertising, children can get a complete set of baseball cards easily (Buy me that, too! 1992. But the presenter said 73 boxes to get a good chance only, this result in expenditure increasing for parents (Buy me that, too! 1992). Therefore, television advertising directed at children is not fair, people can not allow deceptive advertising continue to misleading children, it should be forbid. Some people argue that if government do not allowed manufacturers to promote their products on children television, this will lead to destroy of the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s product industry. This point of view is biased. Word-of-mouth is influencing children buying power. Harry Potter novel now is popular around the world, but the success is not from television advertising, the books themselves became successful are because of word-of-mouth between children (Blades, Gunter & Oates cited in Proctor &Richards, 2002). Without television advertising, childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s product has been successful in society, Harry Potter gives manufacturers an example that how to achieve success without to promote on children television. Moreover, television advertising is not only method for manufacturers to promote their products. According to the Australia Film Commission report (AFC, 2005), it is estimated the total advertising expenditure with Commercial Economic Advisory Service of Australia (CEASA). Television advertising is not the most important channel for manufacturers in Australia, newspapers is the first choice for manufacturers to promote their products. Also, from the study, manufacturers like to choose radio, magazines and other channels to promote their products (AFC, 2005). Furthermore, 78% of children and adolescents who use the internet do so at home (National Center for Education Statistics, 2003). Internet has become an efficiency way for manufacturers to promote their goods. From the word-of-mouth advertising and study from AFC, people can find the answer easily that forbid the manufacturers to advertise on television will not destroy the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s product industry. To escape advertising is nearly impossible; brand logos are everywhere. Even in outer space you canÃ¢â¬â¢t escape it. In 1993 SchwarzeneggerÃ¢â¬â¢s underrated and misunderstood classic, (my opinion, IÃ¢â¬â¢ll admit it! ) Last Action Hero had itÃ¢â¬â¢s logo painted on a satellite for a large fee, and will circle our planet for the next few thousand years. The soldiers fighting in Iraq, even as I write this, are carrying advertisements; the M-16A2 has a Colt logo stamped into its side, a reminder of who makes that quality weapon. Even in the remotest regions of our world artifacts with recognizable logos are found thanks to care packages. (The Gods Must be Crazy is a wonderful movie on this subject. ) Why do we tolerate such invasions to our lives? Largely because these sorts of advertisements slip under our radar, but also for identification purposes; if you came to my house and saw my entertainment centre, you might know what the DVD player, stereo and the television are, but if you are not familiar with gaming systems, you would have trouble distinguishing the X-Box from the Playstation 2 or the Gamecube. So that type of brand labelling does serve a purpose other than advertising in some cases. There are exceptions to the rule of slapping a logo on everything that we purchase, and a clear boundary that corporations will not cross; furniture. A simple scan of the room IÃ¢â¬â¢m in shows that that my furniture has nothing denoting where it came from, although I do know that the mattress does have a manufacturerÃ¢â¬â¢s tag on it, my sheets cover it. Out of sight, out of mind. Advertising is becoming more and more a part of our society. The film Minority Report features a scene where advertising is everywhere, and customized to the person. This could be construed as an invasion of privacy, as every purchase of the individual is scrutinized and advertising is personally tailored to that person. This type of information gathering is already being tested in seemingly innocent places. Search for a book on amazon.com and you will get recommendations for other products that you may also be interested in based on your search. (Houlihan, 2005, pg76) Advertisers are also starting to work under our radar. On the Internet, advertisers used to use tracking cookies to find out the places you went, what you purchased online and other information. Soon the pop up ad appeared to annoy just about everyone who saw them. Pop ups were preceded by E-junk mail, dubbed Spam. The problem has moved on to what have been dubbed Ã¢â¬ËSpybotsÃ¢â¬â¢ programs that integrate into your browser program and report back the web activity to itÃ¢â¬â¢s source. Gator is the most infamous of these. The answer to the thesis statement based on this research paper is yes. To sum up, it is clearly shows that public should outlaw all advertisements that target innocent children. As this is good for childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s health and controls the increasing childhood obesity, and also is of great benefit to the relationship between children and parents. Parents are no longer afraid that children are influenced by unhealthy content of advertisements. Nowadays, more and more countries, like many European Union countries, implement a ban on childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s advertising. Children are a countryÃ¢â¬â¢s future, protecting their wellbeing and healthy life is the most important responsibility not only for their parents but also for the whole society. References Derived from esbco host Ã¢â¬â The university of Winnipeg http://libproxy. uwinnipeg. ca/login? URL=http://search. ebscohost. com/login. asp? profile=web CNN. com Health America Australia Film Commission, 2005, what Australians are watching, [Online], Available: http://www. afc. gov. au/gtp/wftvisadrevenue. html [November 24, 2008] Baker, F. 2004, TV-Toy Ad analysis Worksheet, [Online], Available:http://medialit. med. sc. edu/toyadanalysisworksheet. htm [November, 24, 2005]
Tuesday, October 22, 2019
Find out What Mathematical Economics Is Much of the study of economics requires an understanding of mathematical and statistical methods, so what exactly is mathematical economics? Mathematical economics is best defined as a sub-field of economics that examines the mathematical aspects of economics and economic theories. Or put into other words, mathematics such as calculus, matrix algebra, and differential equations are applied to illustrate economic theories and analyze economic hypotheses. Proponents of mathematical economics claim that the primary advantage of this particular approach is that it permits the formation of theoretical economic relationships through generalizations with simplicity. Mind you, the simplicity of this approach to the study of economics is certainly subjective. These proponents are likely to be skilled in complex mathematics. An understanding of mathematical economics is particularly important for students considering the pursuit of a graduate degree in economics as advanced economics studies make great use of formal mathematical reasoning and models. Mathematical Economics vs. Econometrics As most economics student will attest to, modern economic research certainly doesnt shy away from mathematical modeling, but its application of the math differs within the various subfields. Fields like econometrics seekÃ to analyze real-world economic scenarios and activity through statistical methods. Mathematical economics, on the other hand, could be considered econometrics theoreticalÃ counterpart. Mathematical economics allows economists to formulate testable hypotheses on a wide array of complicated subjects and topics. It also permits economists to explain observable phenomena in quantifiable terms and provide the basis for further interpretation or the provision of possible solutions.Ã But these mathematical methods that economists use are not limited to mathematical economics. In fact, many are often utilized in the studies of other sciences as well. The Math in Mathematical Economics These mathematical methods generally reach far beyond typical high school algebra and geometry and are not limited to one mathematical discipline. The importance of these advanced mathematical methods is captured perfectly in the mathematics section of books to study before going to graduate school in economics: Having a good understanding of mathematics is crucial to success in economics. Most undergraduate students, particularly those coming from North America, are often shocked by how mathematical graduate programs in economics are. The math goes beyond basic algebra and calculus, as it tends to be more proofs, such as Let (x_n) be a Cauchy sequence. Show that if (X_n) has a convergent subsequence then the sequence is itself convergent. Economics uses tools from essentially every branch of mathematics. For instance, aÃ great deal of pure mathematics, such as real analysis, appears in microeconomic theory. Numerical methodÃ approaches from applied mathematics are also used a great deal in most subfields of economics. Partial differential equations, which are normally associated with physics, show up in all kinds of economics applications, most notably finance and asset pricing. For better or for worse, economics has become an incredibly technical topic of study.
Monday, October 21, 2019
Mental Illness a New Kind of Language Barrier To see it is to believe it, right? But what if you do not know what you are looking at? What if you do not know what you are looking for? Understanding a person suffering with a mental illness can be challenging and overwhelming; it is difficult to understand them, and difficult to communicate with them. But what do you do when you are faced with something difficult? You try to understand it, it is like untying a knot, you find the ends of the thread first and work your way through. To begin, you will get an idea of what it means to be a mentally healthy person. Then you will learn about the signs and symptoms of two specific mental illnesses, Bipolar Disorder and Schizophrenia, so that you can gain a deeper understanding of each illness and its uniqueness. After each description of these diseases will be techniques of how to interact and communicate with a person suffering from the symptoms of these diseases. What makes a person mentally healthy? Adrienne Dill Linton, who put together the book Introduction to Medical-Surgical Nursing, defines a mentally healthy person as Ã¢â¬Å"a person who is a living being with physical, cognitive, emotional, behavioral, and social dimensions who interacts with the environment to achieve a chosen life purposeÃ¢â¬ (1272). Healthy, self-actualized individuals have an accurate perception of reality, they have an ability to accept oneself and others (Linton 1273). A mentally healthy person can be spontaneous, they can solve problems, essentially a mentally healthy person can adapt to change. There is a need for privacy and a need for independence. A mentally healthy person can express themselves emotionally. This person has a frequency of happy moments in their life that produce a sense of worth, hope, and love of life. They identify with humankind, can maintain satisfactory relationships, they have a sense of ethics and they have some sense of resistance to conformity (Linton 1273). This definition and explanation is meant to give you a baseline of what makes a person mentally healthy and self-actualized. Now we will begin to explore how mental illness varies from this baseline. What is Bipolar Disorder? In the book, PN Mental Health Nursing, Bipolar Disorder is described as a mood disorder with recurrent episodes of depression and mania (Sommer et al. 107). Mania is psychotic, paranoid, and/or bizarre behavior. Psychotic behavior can be better explained by simply saying that one has a disconnection from reality. A person demonstrating paranoid behavior may think that everyone is out to get them. To be manic is to have a labile or easily changed mood with euphoria, agitation and irritability (Sommer et al. 109). A person going through a manic episode, has mood changes easily and quickly without rhyme or reason. This person is restless and wants to get going even if they donÃ¢â¬â¢t know where they are going or what they are doing. Interference or criticism of what a manic personÃ¢â¬â¢s chosen task is can cause increased agitation and irritability. During a manic episode there is an increase in talking and activity and flight of ideas (Sommer et al. 109). This basically means that there is rapid, continuous speech with sudden and frequent topic change. A person going through a manic episode has a disconnection from reality in the fact that they have a grandiose view of self and their abilities, they think of themselves as godlike. In the book The Bipolar Disorder Survival Guide, author David J. Miklowitz explains grandiosity as feeling superior to everyone else and believing that only very special people can understand them (24). There is a high level of impulsivity that comes with a manic episode, like spending money and giving away money or possessions (Sommer et al. 109). This can be confused with generosity but the two couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be more different. Generosity describes a person who is prepared to give more than is strictly necessary or expected while impulsivity describes a lack of self-control. The depressive part of bipolar disorder is a flat, blunted, labile affect (Sommer et al. 109). A flat affect means the facial expression never changes, a blunted affect means there is a narrow range of normal expressions and labile affect means an easily changing facial expression. This person going through a depressive episode experiences tearfulness or crying and lack of energy. Francis Mark Mondimore, the author of Bipolar Disorder: A Guide For Patients And Families, describes some of the symptoms of the depressive part of bipolar disorder as having a loss of pleasure and lack of interest in activities, hobbies, sexual activity, and states that this person may have physical reports of discomfort or pain (18). A person with bipolar disorder who is experiencing a depressive episode may not be able to make sense of why they are feeling so low, there may not be a clear reason why they canÃ¢â¬â¢t stop crying. Keep in mind what they are feeling is real to them, and it is important to have empathy but not sympathy. To have empathy is to have an ability to understand and share the feeling of another. Sympathy is a feeling of pity and sadness for someone elseÃ¢â¬â¢s misfortune; itÃ¢â¬â¢s not helpful to the person who is suffering. Many people compare bipolar disorder to riding a roller coaster. During a manic episode, people often confuse confidence with grandiosity, spontaneity with bizarre behavior, sensitivity with intolerance of criticismÃ¢â¬ ¦it is important to know that there is a difference. Confidence is a feeling of self-assurance coming from an appreciation of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own abilities or qualities whereas grandiosity is an unrealistic sense of superiority. Spontaneity is sudden inner impulse or inclination without premeditation or external stimulus versus bizarre behavior which is behavior that is not appropriate to the current circumstances. Sensitivity is being easily offended or hurt but intolerance of criticism is a firm unwillingness to accept any perspectives or thoughts that are different from oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own. Walking through a manic episode. When a person with Bipolar Disorder, is going through a manic episode, it may appear that they are going 100 miles a minute, that they are in a hurry and canÃ¢â¬â¢t focus. So first, be aware of your surroundings; noise, TV, music, background chatter, other people in the vicinity can escalate this personÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior (Sommer et al. 110). Think of these factors as stimulants, this person does not need to be stimulated anymore, so quiet the surrounding areas down or take this person somewhere that is quiet. Use a calm voice, to not use inflection or a tone when you speak, give short responses and short explanations (Sommer et al. 110). Set limits, do not let yourself be manipulated (Sommer et al. 110). Ã¢â¬Å"A person in a true manic state usually will not stop moving, and does not eat, drink, or sleep. This can become a medical emergencyÃ¢â¬ (Sommer et al. 111). Ã¢â¬Å"Mania is an abnormally elevated mood that usually requires hospitalization, hypomania is a less severe episode of mania that lasts at least 4 days accompanied by three to four finding of mania. Hospitalization is not required, and the person is less impaired. Mixed episode is a manic episode and a major depressive episode being experience simultaneously, the person has marked impairment in functioning and can require admission to an acute care mental health facility to prevent self-harm or other directed violenceÃ¢â¬ (Sommer et al. 107) The best thing one can do for a person suffering from a manic episode is to get them professional help. If the person in question is diagnosed with Bipolar Disorder and they are experiencing a manic episode the best thing to do for them is to get them to a hospital where medical professionals are prepared to assess them. The downside of Bipolar Disorder Now, when a person with Bipolar Disorder is going through a depressive episode, the most serious concern here is suicide. If this person speaks of suicide, ask them if they have a plan. A good rule of thumb is if anyone ever mentions, or hints at suicide when they speak to you, always ask them if they have a plan? If yes, then ask them what their plan is? For example, if they plan on shooting themselves, do they have a gun at home? The reason you want to ask these questions is that you want to know if they have the means to kill themselves and you want to prevent self-harm (Linton 1298). This conversation may be uncomfortable, overwhelming and scary, but these questions may be necessary if you ever find yourself in this position. Use calm, slow, steady speech when talking to this person, this person may not respond immediately so be patient. Do not ask direct questions but rather make observations (Sommer et al. 100). Direct questions can cause stress and seem like an attack. Say Ã¢â¬Å"I noticed you didnÃ¢â¬â¢t eat todayÃ¢â¬ rather then Ã¢â¬Å"did you eat today?Ã¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"why didnÃ¢â¬â¢t you eat today?Ã¢â¬ . Never ask Ã¢â¬Å"whyÃ¢â¬ questions, they can come off as accusatory. Make time to be with this person even if they do not speak, it shows you are available and builds trust. Sometimes you must accept silence. Silence can be therapeutic; it is important that you feel comfortable with silence because silence enables the person before you to consider their own thoughts as well as what you are communicating to them (Linton 1285). You may notice that there are some similarities between Bipolar Disorder and Schizophrenia, and you may use the similar communication techniques for both. Exploring Schizophrenia. A person is diagnosed with Schizophrenia then they have psychotic thinking or behavior (Sommer et al. 116). A person suffering with schizophrenia has thoughts that are disconnected from reality and it shows in their behavior. Ã¢â¬Å"School, work, self-care, and interpersonal relationships are significantly impairedÃ¢â¬ (Sommer et al. 116). Ã¢â¬Å"They display bizarre behavior patterns characterized by strange body movements and odd facial expressions, use languages that is impossible to understand, or groom themselves in unusual waysÃ¢â¬ says Richard S.E. Keefe and Philip D. Harvey in the book Understanding Schizophrenia: A Guide to the New Research on Causes and Treatment(18). This disease is characterized by its symptoms and this disease has symptoms that are separated as being positive or negative. Positive symptoms are a manifestation of things that are not normally present, think of positive symptoms as extra characteristics which are the most easily identified symptoms such as hallucinations, delusions, alterations in speech, bizarre behavior such as walking backward constantly (Sommer et al. 117). Negative symptoms are the absence of things that are normally present, think negative symptoms as Ã¢â¬Å"missing.Ã¢â¬ These symptoms are more difficult to understand. A schizophrenic personÃ¢â¬â¢s affect is usually blunted or flat, inability to speak or have thoughts; this person may sit with you but only mumble or respond vaguely to questions. There is a lack of energy, a lack of pleasure or joy, and lack of motivation in activities and hygiene (Sommer et al. 117). Problems with thinking make it very difficult for a person suffering with this disease to live independently. Disordered thinking, inability to make decisions, poor problem-solving ability, difficulty concentrating to perform tasks, memory deficits (long-term memory, working memory such as inability to follow directions to find an address) are examples of what make being independent and schizophrenic difficult (Sommer et al. 117). Emotional manifestations are hopelessness and suicidal ideation. Hope is the one of the most vital emotions we possess; it is a feeling of expectation and desire for something to happen, itÃ¢â¬â¢s a wish, an aspiration, a daydream, an ambition. When you lose all hope, when you lose every daydream of a better life or a better day, when you lose all expectations or ambition, it can be devastating, you may ask yourself what is there left to live for. Hopelessness is deadly. Navigating the minefield that is Schizophrenia. Schizophrenia is difficult in its own way because in this scenario you are dealing with someone who is hallucinating and/or having delusions. Hallucinations can take the form of hearing voices, seeing things, smelling odors, tasting things, or feeling bodily sensations that are not there. According to Sommer et al., Ã¢â¬Å"Delusions are false fixed beliefs that cannot be corrected by reasoning and are usually bizarreÃ¢â¬ (116). An example of a delusion would be a person believing that they are giving birth to a dinosaur. This person is not actually giving birth to a dinosaur, but to them, it is real. A Schizophrenic person who is suffering with hallucinations might hear voices or feel ants crawling on their skin. If you are faced with someone who is struggling with schizophrenia and experiencing hallucinations or delusions, do not argue and do not agree with them. This person suffering from hallucination or delusions believes they are just as real as a mentally healthy person believing that the sky is blue. To them, it is a rational and matter of fact thought. If they say they hear voices that are telling them to kill themselves you would say Ã¢â¬Å"I donÃ¢â¬â¢t hear anything, but that sounds scaryÃ¢â¬ and try to provide safety to prevent them from causing harm to themselves or others. How do you keep this person safe? Seek professional help, call 911. Be genuine and empathetic in all communications with this person. Reorient them to reality and focus conversations on reality-based topics. One day, you may find yourself facing someone you care about who is suffering from the symptoms of Schizophrenia or Bipolar Disorder. You may find yourself wanting to help them, but not knowing where to start or what to say. Take a step back and remind yourself that this person communicates differently. Do they use words? Yes, but they are telling you something with their behavior as well. Observe the person before you, are they mumbling? Does it sound like they are talking to someone who is not there? Are they focused on you? Or are they focused on something else? Does it look like they are looking at someone or something that is not there? Do they seem panicked? Do they seem lethargic? Asking yourself questions like these will be helpful in determining how to communicate with a person diagnosed with a mental illness who is experiencing an episode. In any scenario, be available, listen, clarify, share observations, be genuine and be prepared for silence. If you find yourself perplexed by the issues that come with helping someone who is diagnosed with a mental illness you can reach out to various advocacy groups such as Mental Health America or the National Alliance on Mental Illness. Websites for mental health https://www.nami.org/ https://www.mentalhealthamerica.net/ https://www.nimh.nih.gov/index.shtml Keefe, Richard S. E., and Philip D. Harvey. Understanding Schizophrenia: A Guide to the New Research on Causes and Treatment. Free Press, 1994. Linton, Adrianne Dill. Introduction to Medical-Surgical Nursing. 6th ed., Elsevier Saunders, 2016. Miklowitz, David Jay. The Bipolar Disorder Survival Guide What You and Your Family Need to Know. Guilford Press, 2002. Mondimore, Francis Mark. Bipolar Disorder: A Guide for Patients and Families. Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999. Sommer, Sherry, et al. PN Mental Health Nursing. 9.0 ed., Assessment Technologies Institute, LLC., 2014.